In response to reported state and national student achievement levels, numerous types of reform efforts have been initiated in mathematics and reading classrooms across the Nation. There is a need to rethink how mathematics and reading instruction are delivered in the elementary school classroom. Two factors impacted this study: (a) elementary school classroom organizational structures; and (b) reading and mathematics achievement and accountability as set by the FCAT.Organizational structures. According to the United States Department of Education (2005), the nation is continuing to follow a trend of low academic achievement with little increase since the 1960s. It is startling to see that elementary school students today, who have access to so much technology and information, are not scoring significantly higher than students from prior generations. Many issues arise that can affect student achievement; one may be the organizational structure of the school. One aspect of organizational structure involves how many subject areas one teacher covers in the classroom. In this more traditional, self-contained classroom the teacher is expected to carry the responsibility of the curriculum; teaching reading/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies for the entire day (Chan & Jarman, 2004). The other side of organizational structure is the departmental approach. This is sometimes referred to as the four teacher model. In this approach the teachers teach specific content areas and the students move from classroom to classroom during the day (Gerretson, Bosnick & Schofield, 2008).