实践证明，学生的学习过程，教给他们的东西，无论是“表面”或“深”的方式（Marton &塞尔乔，1976a & B；1984）。这就形成了我们处理信息的方式的粗略草案，因此，运用了不同的认知技巧。据崖（2003a）、“面”的方法是由学习者关注文本的细节没有潜在的争论本质的关注和理解，文本的方式描述；并试图找到一种方法来复制文本内容中的盲目感来完成他们的评估要求不改变文本的内容，为自己的心。同时，“深”的方法是学习者积极寻找的意义和他们所处理的竞争结构的深入了解和描述；使用他们的一般知识和写作风格转换所处理或他们试图找出自己感觉的方式。它指出，应用“深”方法的学生更可能在高等教育中取得成功。根据马顿和塞尔乔（1976a & B；1984），至少在一定程度上可以通过学生的方式处理文本的问题，他们被问及一些特定文本的形成。在学术成果的成功与失败不取决于能力，但差异等因素也对学术思维方式结果的重要影响（张，2001）。基于研究张进行结果（2001）424年级从香港和中国，有证据证明的某些思维方式的学术成功的积极贡献。另一个由加西亚和休伊特卡诺休斯研究（2000），他们发现相互联系、学习和思维方式对学业成功的影响也有一定的联系提供证据的思维风格与学业成就。这两项研究还指出，智力发展可能发挥重要作用，学术素养和学术上的成功。
It is proved that students process what they are taught in either "surface" or the "deep" ways (Marton & Saljo, 1976a & b; 1984). This makes a rough draft of the ways we process information, thus, tapping into different cognitive skills used. According to Cliff (2003a), the "surface" methods are described by learners paying their attentions to the details of the texts without the essential attentions to the underlying contentions and the ways of making sense in that texts; and trying to find a way to replicate the content of text in a unthinking sense to accomplish the requirements of their assessment without changing the content of text to make it sense for themselves. Meanwhile, the "deep" methods are the description of learners who enthusiastically look for the deep understanding of the meaning and the structure of the contention in what they are processing; and use their general knowledge and writing style to convert what they have processed or they try to find out the way of making sense by themselves. It would point out that the students who apply the "deep" methods are more likely to be success in higher education. According to Marton & Saljo (1976a & b; 1984), at least to some extent could the way students processed text be formed through some kinds of questions they were asked about the certain text.Successes and failures in academic achievement do not depend on only the differences in capabilities but that factors like thinking styles also have an important effect on academic outcomes (Zhang, 2001). Basing on the results of a research carried out by Zhang (2001) of 424 juniors from Hong Kong and China, there is a proof to demonstrate the positive contribution to academic success of the certain thinking styles. In another study by Cano-Garcia & Hewitt Hughes (2000), they discovered that the interrelation and the impact of learning and thinking styles on academic success also supply evidence of a certain connection between thinking styles and academic achievement. These two studies also point out that the intellectual development may play an important role in academic literacy and academic success.