许多关于强迫移民的论述都与政治推动人们移民有关，但在这项研究中，重要的是将强迫移民视为等同于痛苦移民——环境迫使人们为了寻找更好的生活而逃离。在《迁移简史》一书中，Livi Bacci介绍了许多不同类型的迁移，包括强制迁移的概念。在本书的这一部分，Livi Bacci不仅讨论了移民必须如何考虑国外的劳动力市场，而且还讨论了接收国应该如何考虑移民如何使国家受益。随着各国不断重新考虑移民的价值，移民离开家园希望改变自己的生活是一场赌博。从这一点，我们可以看到移民是多么困难，也可以理解，每个难民在试图逃离这个国家的同时，都是在进行一次巨大的信仰飞跃。除了Livi Bacci对迁移进行的正式研究外，还有其他一些较小的研究致力于揭示窘迫迁移或强迫迁移的潜在原因。在一篇名为《压力点:环境退化、移民和冲突》的文章中，作者阐述了移民如何受到环境问题的影响。这篇文章接着解释了发展中国家的环境恶化如何可能对发展有害，并可能导致大规模的人口迁移。在此之后，作者还谈到了贫困人口的移民所面临的挑战，以及这将如何影响移民的外流。记住这些信息，我们可以看到成本和收益规划是讨论困难迁移时的一个关键概念。权衡这些成本和收益最终可能会迫使一些人离开他们的家，因为他们意识到那里没有什么好的东西留给他们。
Much of migration discourse surrounding forced migration pertains to a political push for people to migrate, but for this study it is important to look at forced migration as an equivalent to distress migration- the circumstances pushed the people to flee in order to find a better life. In the book A Short History of Migration, Livi Bacci writes about many different types of migration including the idea of forced migration. In this section of the book, Livi Bacci discusses not only how migrants must consider the labor market in outside countries, but also how receiving countries should be considering how an immigrant can benefit the country. With countries continuously reconsidering the value of immigration it is a gamble for migrants to leave their homes in hopes of changing their life. From this, we can see how difficult migration is and understand that each refugee is making a huge leap of faith while trying to flee the country.Along with the formal study of migration done by Livi Bacci, there are other smaller studies dedicated to uncovering underlying reasons for distress migration or forced migration. In an article called “Pressure Points: Environmental Degradation, Migration, and Conflict”, the author writes about how migration is affected by environmental problems. The article goes on to explain how environmental degradation in developing countries can be detrimental to development and can cause a mass migration of people. Following this, the author also speaks about the challenges of migrating for people living in poverty and how this may affect the outflow of migrants. Keeping in mind this information, we can see that cost and benefit planning is a key concept when talking about distressed migration. Weighing these cost and benefits in the end can force someone to leave their home because they realize there is nothing good left for them there.