Phenomenological research is typically unstructured, with no specific ‘design’ or ‘format’. The researcher is at liberty to proceed as they see fit, merely ensuring that they conform to the basic tenets of philosophy, notably emphasising the first-person and targeting their conscious experience. The setting is usually realistic or naturalistic, so for example, no attempt is made to ‘remove’ the patient from their natural environment. Experimental research is traditionally highly structured. There are specific designs available to the researcher, each with set parameters or protocols. Randomisation of subjects to conditions is critical, to minimise the counfounding effects of nuisance variables. Therefore it is essential to recruit a sample of individuals who serve as participants. They can either be exposed to all conditions of the experiment, leading to a within-groups design, or assigned to just one of the conditions, creating a between-groups design. Independent and dependent variables must be specified clearly, so that there is no uncertainty about the conditions being manipulated, the direction of causality, and outcome measures. The setting is typically artificial – for example a laboratory – with a low degree of realism. It is important to point out that some phenonemonological research assumes that conscious experience is a function of neurological activity in the brain, known as neurophenomenology. This overlap with physiological sciences means that an experimental design may be used to establish the authenticity of certain aspects of conscious experience (e.g. determining whether an experience of motor activity is accompanied by electrical activity in the appropriate regions of the brain).