The second development that led to the emergence of authentic testing as Gulikers (2008) highlighted reflects the development of education from atomized knowledge and skills acquisition, to education for the development of competencies. Traditional practices that aimed at conveying knowledge and training of simple skills were characterized by instruction for knowledge transmission, learning by memorization and drillâ€andâ€practice, and assessment that is standardized. Frankly said, subject content was transmitted to passive students who had to memorize information and cough it out in multipleâ€choice tests or through carrying out simple skills in a wellâ€defined setting. Moreover, instruction, learning and assessment were treated as separate activities with assessment considered as an afterthought. On the other hand, today knowledge is still important, but as a prerequisite for achieving competence. Educational practices aiming at the development of competencies can be summarized as follows: instruction that focuses on deep learning and competency development, learning based on reflectiveâ€active knowledge construction, and assessment that is contextualized, interpretative and performanceâ€based. Education for competence stimulates students to actively construct their own knowledge, integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes into realistic performances, and detect gaps in their competencies to stimulate future learning. Assessment requires student to show their level of competency development. Moreover, more emphasis is now being placed on integrating these three components, instead of viewing them as separate activities.