Such measures can be considered to come into conflict with generally held beliefs about individual human rights. State measures to ensure, for example, that indigenous minorities have proportional democratic representation may require explicit positive discrimination, such as ‘quota’ systems, to be put in place which conflict with strict equality. Cultural norms may exacerbate this, so that, for example, in a patriarchal society, due to the social mechanics of family and community life particular sections of the group, such as women, are given no voice in group decisions and potentially find it difficult to exercise their right to political activism and decision-making. Where such deference to cultural norms goes as far as permitting different ‘personal laws’ to apply for cases of marriage, parenthood and divorce, as they are in India, this can remove the personal choice of women who find it difficult to switch to a different sphere of personal law to find a more advantageous outcome. Furthermore, such personal laws may actively discriminate against one or other sex, for example in the case of custody. Finally, permitting minorities to govern themselves may result in discrimination against the disadvantaged within that community – such as the disabled, alternative sexualities and women.