Besides the two entrance examinations, there are three more large-scale public examinations to be taken by Shanghai students. These are graduation examinations, which serve to certify students' qualification/graduation at each level: primary, middle and high school (similar examinations also exist in other parts of China). These examinations are summative in nature, thus the test items are set based on teaching objectives at each level. Almost all students will get through these examinations. Therefore these examinations are less threatening for most students.In Malaysia, the Examination Syndicate under the Malaysian Ministry of Education manages all the public examinations whereas in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Educational Examinations Authority manages all the entrance examinations and the middle & high school graduation examinations. In China, the entrance examination of universities has always been the most important and rigorous examination, and in the past the Examination Center of the Ministry of Education took the sole charge of its question formulation, organization and management. However, for the last 20 years, in line with the education reform, the examination system is also undergoing reformation. By the year 2004, a total of 11 provinces have obtained the right to formulate their own examination questions, among which Shanghai was the first one. Hence, the Shanghai Municipal Educational Examinations Authority is in charge of the organization and question formulation of all public examinations, starting from middle school. However, the primary school graduation examination is organized by the various District Education Departments.