在组织中区分指导和指导。他说，“指导是一种更有指导意义的工作”。另一方面，他表示“指导是一种非指导的关系，更广泛地关注”。作为导师对个人和组织的看法更长远。在对康威(1997)关于教练和指导的观点的反思中，他指出教练与绩效问题直接相关。另一方面，教练被描述为“提高一个已经胜任的人的表现，而不是一开始就建立能力。”由Furlong和Maynard(1995)将指导分为三个阶段，其中包括学徒、能力和反思，基于Clutterbuck(1985)的理论工作。这种模式经常被导师利用。汤姆林森认为导师是“反思的教练”和“有效的促进者”(1995年在《Rice 2007》中提到的)。同样，这种模式也有基础，尽管许多导师认为辅导是合格专业人员的独立责任。但是安德森和香农。将指导角色定义为“一个照顾者，培养学员”，这在我看来是一个更恰当的描述。“行动学习”是一种将学习世界与行动世界联系起来的方法，通过一个被称为“行动学习集”(McGill & Beaty 1995)的小型合作学习小组的反思过程。“集合”定期举行会议，讨论个体成员在现实生活中的问题，目的是相互学习，相互学习。行动学习的“父亲”Reg Revans说，没有学习就没有行动，没有(冷静和深思熟虑的)行动。
distinguishes between coaching and mentoring in organisations. He refers to 'coaching as a more directive and focused on job'. On the other hand he expresses 'mentoring as a 'non-directive relationship and more broadly focused. As the mentor takes a longer perspective for the individual and the organization'. In reflection to Conway's (1997) views on coaching and mentoring, he states that coaching is 'directly related to performance issues'. On the other hand coaching is described as 'Improving the performance of somebody who is already competent rather than establishing competence in the first place.Three phases of mentoring were classified by Furlong and Maynard (1995), these included apprenticeship, competency and reflection, based on Clutterbuck's (1985) theoretical work. This model is frequently made use of by mentors. Tomlinson viewed mentors as 'reflective coaches' and 'effective facilitator' with a counselling role (1995 cited in Rice 2007). Again this model has grounding, even though many mentors view counselling as a separate responsibility for qualified professionals. However Anderson and Shannon . defined the mentoring role as 'a carer, nurturing the mentee', this could be viewed as a more pertinent description in my view.Action Learning is the approach that links the world of learning with the world of action through a reflective process within small cooperative learning groups known as 'action learning sets' (McGill & Beaty 1995). The 'sets' meet regularly to work on individual members' real-life issues with the aim of learning with and from each other. The 'father' of Action Learning, Reg Revans, has said that there can be no learning without action and no (sober and deliberate) action without learning.